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Art & Culture | Overview Population and Language
Most residents Kutai primarily living in coastal areas and riverbanks to Islam. A small portion of the population living mainly in the interior still adheres to animistic beliefs and partly converted to Christianity and Catholicism.


The natives in the interior formerly nomadic (nomad), this is because their main livelihood is farming with the move as well as hunting. While people living in coastal areas and river banks, in addition to living with sedentary farming also living as fishermen, traders and officials / employees in the public and private spheres.


In general it can be said that the public Kutai has properties suave, honest and have a collaborative spirit is high. Guests or outsiders are highly respected. Communities is also very religious and have a sense of inter-religious tolerance is high.


Language
Kutai society consists of many tribes and sub-tribes have diverse languages. Some languages ​​sub-tribe that is not used anymore or are already extinct language Umaa Wak, Umaa Palaa, Umaa Luhaat, Umaa Palog, Baang Kelo, and Umaa Sam, formerly the languages ​​commonly used by local people on the upstream and downstream Mahakam.


Nowadays, Bahasa Indonesia as the national language has been recognized in almost all corners of Kutai and used as a language in formal occasions as well as to communicate with people outside the area. While tribal languages ​​are only used for communication between members of his own tribe.


Ethnic
Population in Kutai Kartanegara consists of several parts that can be divided into 2 groups, namely the Malay and Dayak ethnic groups.


Malay Group
According to the trust of the population, the area was once inhabited by 5 Kutai tribe, namely:
1. Poem fathers who live around Muara Ancalong and Muara Kaman
2. Punang tribe who live around Muara Muntai and Build City
3. Pahu tribe who inhabit the area around Muara Pahu
4. Dijangkat Tulur fathers who inhabit the area around the Barong Tongkok and Melak
5. Melani tribe who inhabit the area around Kutai Lama and Tenggarong


Pantun fathers, and Melani Punang grow and develop into Kutai ethnic that have the same language but different dialects. Thus Kutai ethnic are indigenous of this area. Subsequently arriving in waves Banjar and Bugis, so the Malay ethnic group who inhabit the area consists of tribal Kutai Kutai, Banjar and Bugis.


Dayak groups
Descendants Puak Tulur Dijangkat grow and develop into the Dayak tribe. They split up and left the original land form each ethnic group now known as the Dayak tribe Alas, Bahau, Benuaq, Modang, Penihing, Busang, Bukat, Ohong and Bentian.
- Alas tribe inhabited the district Melak, Barong Tongkok and Muara Pahu
- Bahau tribe inhabited the district Long Iram and Long Bagun
- Benuaq Jempang inhabit the district, Muara Lawa, Peace and Muara Pahu
- Modang tribe inhabit the estuary Ancalong and Muara district Wahau
- Parts Penihing, Bukat tribes and sub-tribes inhabit the Long Ohong Apari
- Sub-tribe inhabited the Long Busang Pahangai
- Parts Benuaq inhabit the Great Benuaq district and Muara Lawa


In addition to these ethnicities, there are also other sub ethnic namely Dayak Kenyah, Punan, Basap, and Kayan.


Kenyah of the Apo Kayan is settler from Bulungan area. Now, these ethnic inhabiting districts Muara Ancalong, Muara Wahau, Tabang, Long Bagun, Long Pahangai, Long Iram and Samarinda Ilir.


Dayak Punan who inhabit a wilderness throughout East Kalimantan from Bulungan area, Berau and Kutai. They live in small groups in caves and trees. They were nurtured by the Ministry of Social Affairs through the Project Correctional Isolated Tribe.


Dayak Basap according to the story are the descendants of the Chinese people who mate with the Punan. They live in Sangkulirang and Bontang area.


Dayak Kayan came from Central Kalimantan. They are also referred to the Biaju. They inhabit the district Long Iram, Long Bagun and Muara Wahau.


Religion
The most fastest growing religion and has the most adherents in the Kutai region is Islam. Adherents of this religion is primarily Kutai ethnic and another settlers like Banjar, Bugis and Javanese. Some Dayaks are also embraced Islam but not many.


Islam began to be known in the Kutai kingdom in the early 16th century and developed in the early 17th century, during the reign of Sultan Aji Pangeran Sinum Panji Mendapa (circa 1635). This is proven by the Constitution of the Kingdom called Panji Selaten and the book of law called Beraja Nanti that clearly sourced to Islamic law. Since then Islam growing very rapidly until today.


Christianity occupies the second position in terms of the number of adherents and intense proselytizing. At first, religious broadcasting is done by evangelists from Germany and Switzerland. Gospel mission sending agency of Germany was the Rheinische Mission Gessellschaft zu Barmen (1863-1925) after that followed by Evangelische Gessellschaft zu Basel of Switzerland. Then many more agencies and Catholic Christians who do evangelistic activities in the Kutai region. The followers of Christianity and the Catholic majority is from the Dayak tribe.


Besides religion mentioned above, to date there is still a portion of the population adheres to indigenous beliefs, they are mainly Dayak ethnic group that still gets little outside influence. Original belief centered on the worship of other spirits (animism) and believe in the power hidden in natural objects (dynamism). Adherents of this belief has a good variety of ceremonies associated with the cycle of life and human life (birth, death, marriage, illness, etc.) and the ceremonies associated with the agricultural cycle. In organizing these ceremonies, each tribe has its own variations.

 

 

       

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